Vision by Avarrus

Upclose and Local

Fundamental preconditions for life have changed from global to regional or local due to changes in the state of the environment and development in politics, economy and technology. Nature has merged together with urban surroundings to support the future lifestyle.

Up Close and Local

The circular economy has altered our perception of material and production. Future living is based on recyclable, locally produced goods and experiences. Nature has blended into the urban landscape, supporting a future lifestyle. The boundaries between the built and the natural environment are blurring.


Urbanisation has led to the concentration of living in urban centres and their surrounding areas. The ecological restoration of the environment to its natural state has started in depleting countryside regions, and the overconsumption of resources has become a thing of the past as the circular economy has become a commonplace practice. Slow-moving deglobalisation has reduced international imports and exports, and the prerequisites of everyday life – such as food, energy, consumer goods, and daily commodities – have moved closer to home. They are now produced in apartments, backyards, in the neighbourhood, or in one’s hometown. Materials circulate locally from waste to reuse. Most everyday objects and things are shared, and there are various services offering and recycling them.

‘A meal made from vegetables grown in a vertical garden and protein produced in a bioreactor arrives on the balcony via drone on request. The apartment is rented from a service offering flexible housing plans. One can select the interior of one’s liking from available furniture – recently there were even some reprinted design classics and collage-like furniture made of various recycled pieces on offer. The heirloom antique stools, however, have been transported to the new home by a moving robot.’

Cities are beginning to resemble living organisms. The circular economy, connection to nature, and the use of bio-based materials have blurred the boundary between nature and the built environment. Humans live as part of nature while protecting its diversity. The built environment begins to take shape as part of a whole, where buildings are organisms belonging to the surrounding ecosystem.

The development of greener cities began with the addition of rainwater basins and green areas to the urban landscape to promote climate adaptation. Biophilic spaces brought plants indoors and into the city, which had a positive effect on general well-being. Products began to be made from bio-based materials. As leaps were made in technology and biotechnology, intelligent features were added to materials. It was not possible to save all natural environments from climate change, but a grand initiative was started to integrate nature into the urban sphere. The natural resilience of animals and plants inspires people to adapt to the environment. The growth of carbon dioxide emissions halted and the era of natural restoration could begin.

‘This apartment is already slightly older – it was 3D-printed from genetically modified cellulose sometime in the 2070s – but the structures of the buildings today contain microbes that serve to repair their damages and are so long-lasting that even this building will not end up in element recycling for a long time. Smaller updates that add to living comfort are usually possible, and a balcony element that collects solar energy was clicked onto the façade. New bio houses can now be programmed to grow on top of an old building, since they are so lightweight. A couple of such housing units have just become available on the top floor, with load-bearing limestone structures that grow a bit like the backbone of an organism. Information travels along the walls via fungus mycelium, and the walls are made of water-repellent and insulating material, the production genes of which are modelled on aquatic animals.’

Communication, entertainment, and the world of work are more international than ever before through the development of virtual realities and the metaverse. Thanks to the automation of many professions, working time has decreased, and more free time is spent virtually or using wellness services.

‘Physical remnants of consumption culture – shopping centres and small street-level storefronts in city centres – have shaped into an interesting collage of diverse services. Former store spaces now host public virtual pods, where digital workers can get a change of scenery from their home offices, using a biometrical sign-up to their own VR workplace. In one virtual pod, a student is tuned into a remote university lecture while sipping on laboratory coffee. Many pod-goers have already switched from work to freetime to join their friends and family face to face for collective virtual experiences. In the virtual sphere, you are free to leave behind the restrictions of reality – and choose to fly around in a mountain landscape, or participate in an extreme sport. Providers of multisensorial services  offer popular presence-based entertainment as ways to relax, meditate, and focus on living in the now. There is even an initiative that brings together a virtual landscape with a classic restaurant.’

The natural environment

The environment becomes altered through climate change: vegetation zones move further north, and plant and animal species find new habitats. When biodiversity is threatened, special attention is paid to ecological sustainability. Harnessing the environment as a resource is reduced by means of a circular economy in order to secure a habitat for natural species. Recreational use of the environment is on the rise, serving to promote general well-being.

Extreme weather phenomena such as heat waves, heavy rains, and floods are becoming more commonplace in vulnerable areas due to climate change. The resilience of urban areas is actively increased when the urban heat island effect forces us to find ways of cooling down buildings and cities. Less new residential areas are being built in coastal and flood-prone lowlands. Such areas are instead reserved for slowing floodwaters and for recreational use by local citizens. Delaying rainwater with the help of green structures and water basins creates more green space in cities, and reduces the heat island effect, i.e. the concentration of heat in metropolitan areas. Spring drought periods and heat waves direct the utilisation of rainwater locally in urban areas.

Forests and parks with ecological diversity have merged into the urban landscape. The boundary between the city and the natural environment has become blurred. Disappearing traditional biotopes such as meadows have become part of the cityscape. Ecological sustainability is taken into account in urban landscaping. The harmful effects of climate change have been dampened by buffer islands that regulate the rise of the water level, and by basins that delay stormwater. Such basins adapt to the amount of rainfall, forming water elements in the urban space.

Biophilic design has added to the well-being of people living in cities. As humans take up living space from the natural environment, nature has blended into the city – and the city into nature. Urban planning also takes into account non-human species. Urban environments feature water elements, diverse vegetation, shade, tranquillity, and living space for animals, plants, and insects alike.

Rainwater runoff management and a rise in the popularity of green construction has led to greener urban environments and the further diversion of rainwater to the use of citizens. The focus of water supply in buildings has shifted from a municipal to a more local level, and many people cultivate useful plants at home or in their yard. Increased water consumption has been compensated for by collecting rainwater on a block-by-block basis. Water purification and its further utilisation are part of the natural scheme of adapting to climate change. The water brought by heavy rains is seen as a resource, and cleaning rainwater for reuse in building blocks has become a normal part of everyday life. The presence and treatment of water in the urban environment has become commonplace, as water-related functions are no longer diverted away from urban areas.


The instability of the global market economy increases with climate change and problems in complex international production shine a light on the importance of local production and security of supply. The import of materials from other countries is reduced as there is a tendency to avoid transport-derived emissions and a prioritisation of the security of supply. At the same time, new products include more local recycled materials. With a circulation of materials, there is no need to mine them from the ground, and this, in turn, supports local production and protects the natural environment. Mining areas that were promoting electric mining are now re-harnessed for recreation and entertainment.

The year is 2100, and circular economy thinking has contributed to the efficient use of resources. Primary production takes care of the vitality of both humans and nature. Waste has now been redefined as a raw material. Instead of having one lifecycle with a start and an end, materials enter a loop, returning to use again and again. Material waste in primary production is minimised, and by-products can be utilised. In the construction field, the prefabrication and computer-assisted planning of components serve to minimise waste – new products and structures can be printed directly to fit the client’s requirements. The processing of materials and goods increases the value of a product, or helps to maintain it, so that the value is retained in the cycle. This practice also reduces energy consumption between lifecycles.

An effective circular economy means that renewable natural materials such as wood are generally used less, and are more often relied upon as a recycled product. Concentrated land use means that rural land that was previously harnessed for agriculture and forestry can be used either for recreational use, or rendered completely free of human activity. Finland has thus regained hundreds of square kilometres of land containing trees that are over 100 years old, and these areas are now on their way to becoming primaeval forests.

Cities and construction

International migration, such as the flow of climate refugees, is balancing the ageing of the population as the trend of urbanisation and urban development persists. The population is concentrated in the south of Finland, in cities and suburban zones, in areas with access to services, or in otherwise attractive unique locations. The vicinity of family and friends, as well as work and study opportunities, are increasingly important factors that dictate where people want to live. The popularity of remote working also means that physical location takes on less importance, and multi-locational seasonal living and residing closer to nature are emerging as trends. Areas outside main urban centres attract remote workers as a counterweight to urbanisation due to their forests, national parks, other outdoor recreation areas, and the prevalence of comfortable living conditions. Cities are responding to this trend with an emphasis on abundant green space in new development projects. Urbanisation, the partial shift of food production to cities, and the requirement to preserve vegetated land and green spaces are leading to a significant increase in land efficiency. Land use planning no longer regulates the external appearance of buildings, but rather ensures sufficient green space and vegetation, and health and safety aspects of housing.

Now in 2100, the urban landscape has changed considerably. Green construction has become more common as a result of adaptation to climate change. Pedestrian and bicycle traffic routes and vegetation dominate constructed areas. Nature and recreation areas are increasingly valued in response to urbanisation and the urban sphere. Nature and the built environment are seen as one unified organism.

People are liberated and inspired to live on their own terms. Mini homes, mobile homes, nomadic and multi-locational living, and seasonal living in the countryside or among nature are common phenomena. Communal living and shared spaces in neighbourhoods bring people who spend time in virtual environments closer together in cities. In sparsely populated areas, spaces, goods, and resources are co-used, shared, and recycled.

Urban planning takes into account regional resources and the built environment. Buildings are actively reused, recycled, and transformed, and constantly updated with new elements and smart materials. The entire future lifecycle of the built environment, the availability of locally available building materials, and energy self-sufficiency are key considerations that are made as early as the design stage. This thinking serves to create architecture that is respectful of the environment, and built to match real needs.

The trend of construction is horizontal, but diverse in terms of appearance in the cityscape: many buildings not only orient upwards, but also downwards. Underground construction makes use of materials extracted from the very site, and intelligent materials create conditions that perfectly mimic natural light, even in underground spaces. Automated vehicles and delivery drones are stored in high-rise, fully automated facilities, with exterior surfaces used for cultivation.

Spaces in buildings are no longer differentiated like they were in the early 2000s, with different areas being used for different purposes. Rather, they are being used efficiently, communally, and flexibly to make room for nature in the urban environment. Hotels, apartments, and workplaces merge together as smart devices enable working on the go, and housing is offered as a flexible service. Communal spaces in building blocks invite residents to grow crops, eat, and spend time together. In the era of home delivery, grocery stores are warehouses, plantations, and protein production plants. Going shopping involves visiting gallery-style showrooms, antique and vintage shops, and flea markets. As commercial activities and office work have moved online, town centres no longer play the same role as in the past, and neighbourhoods are now home to more public squares and other spaces of encounter. More and more leisure and hobby facilities are located close to homes.

The circular economy is part of the construction sector and this is reflected in the use of recycled and waste materials in new products and in the use of renewable and biodegradable building materials. In particular, short-life components of buildings – such as elements used in interiors and fixtures – are made using sustainable materials, such as cellulose-based ones that are 3D-reprinted after their initial lifecycle. The popularity of solid structures and single-component materials has risen due to their durability, repairability, and recyclability. Prefabricated elements from demolished buildings are moved to an element warehouse to await repurposing, and the use of recycled elements in new buildings is visible in the urban landscape. Artificial intelligence-based systems suggest new functions for dismantled or soon-to-be-dismantled elements in the neighbourhood.

The aesthetics of buildings and the natural appearance of materials reflect society’s values. Restoration is reflected in the prevailing trends of individuality, patina, and a ‘patchwork’ aesthetic. A new and shiny aesthetic, on the other hand, is a disappearing phenomenon, reminiscent of the consumption that has led to climate change.

Biomaterials and smart materials are evolving and becoming more common. Traditional construction masonry was first replaced by natural versions that resembled it, such as cement-free natural concrete and lime asphalt made by bacteria. It is possible to print buildings using biomaterials, and building components can be grown on site from mushroom mycelium. New smart buildings sense changes in seasons, the weather, and the time of day. They can optimise indoor conditions such as air, temperature, and lighting to suit the residents and optimise health.

Intelligent devices and automation increasingly form an established part of homes. Appliances and accessories such as taps, showers, kitchen appliances, and entertainment electronics are integrated into the apartment or house and operated by voice or motion sensors. Doors and smart devices are unlocked biometrically, for instance by facial recognition. A green room optimises indoor humidity for plants according to the season, and pets are served their meals automatically.

Building service technology components can be removed, repaired, or replaced without major renovation or disturbance to the resident. New smart materials have been developed to be used in building components, where they repair themselves with the help of microbes in case of damage. At the end of the building’s life cycle, the materials can be recycled by breaking them down into usable forms with the help of biotechnology.

The newest buildings are beginning to resemble quasi-autonomous organisms that have evolved from materials in the surrounding environment. The buildings both grow and repair themselves in a programmed way, as if on their own. Information about changes in the environment, structures, and users is efficiently passed along mycelium networks in the building, which then adapts accordingly to the new situation. New buildings produce their energy in a self-sufficient way and at the end of their lifecycle they break down into easily repurposable compounds through enzymes and decomposer bacteria.


Energy is more and more frequently produced using fossil-free and renewable energy sources. Solar and wind power are becoming widespread. Energy efficiency in buildings is being increased via the computer-assisted optimisation of energy consumption and via more efficient appliances and systems. It is now the norm that buildings are heated with geothermal energy and the overall need for heating will be reduced as climate change increases winter temperatures. In turn, the need to cool buildings will become more important in summer. Solar power generation will be expanded in response to future cooling needs. Electricity generation systems integrated into building exteriors will become more common on roofs, façades, and balconies.

In 2100, infrastructure, buildings, and entire regions have evolved to support renewable energy. A variety of surface materials have been harnessed to generate solar electricity inconspicuously without visible panels. Solar panels are thin films that cannot be seen with the naked eye through the windows or balcony glazing. Windows regulate their own transmission of radiation to optimise the energy consumption of the interior spaces. Wind farms have become an integral part of the landscape in sparsely populated, rural, and coastal areas. Excess solar and wind energy can be stored as hydrogen or heat. Energy-scarce buildings are warmed by geothermal heat as well as residual heat from renewable energy storage. Buildings, in turn, are cooled by ground-source cooling systems, and increased rainwater runoff is harnessed to balance out temperature fluctuations in cities. Buildings and cities use passive means for thermal regulation, such as heat-retaining structures or natural shading for cooling. In addition to the use of renewable energy sources, energy-consuming activities in society have been made more efficient. Product transport distances have been minimised. Necessary travel is carried out using clean energy sources, and new versions of those sources are constantly being innovated.

Consumer goods

With the increased dominance of a circular economy and a rise in environment-focused thinking, the consumer culture of the early 2000s is fading. New products are more and more often made from partially or fully recycled materials. More attention is being paid to the quality, material, and origin of goods and they are being borrowed, rented, passed on, repaired, and recycled. As the practice of making products from recycled materials and reforming them over and over again becomes more common, there is a shift towards a circular economy and closed-loop recycling of materials.

In 2100, the prevalence of disposable single-use items has been replaced by a culture of recycling, repair, and lending. Clothing, smart devices, and other consumer goods can be rapidly made from renewable and fully recyclable materials. At the end of their useful life, they are designed to be dismantled into parts or broken down into compounds for processing and further reuse. New biotech smart material innovations are constantly being developed, and many products are available with added features. Clothing, for example, can repel dirt and water, change its breathability if necessary, or even repair itself. Consumer goods collect data in their environment and can adjust their functions according to the information they gather: clothes can adjust their thermal insulation, and a coffee machine knows when it is needed in the morning. Many consumer goods and their parts can be 3D-printed from locally available raw materials so that new material does not have to be produced and transported. Small recycling services and facilities can be found on every block, and larger purchases can be delivered straight to one’s home.

The quality of consumer goods has improved  as consumption shifts towards services. Shared products have become more common – as opposed to products marketed directly to individual consumers – which underlines the importance of investing in product quality and sustainability. For example, furniture pieces are offered by furniture rental shops, where the quality of the product to be rented is a competitive advantage for the business, and the consumer can easily replace their armchair with a new one when they feel like a change.

The culture of recycling is also reflected in products through repair services and the appreciation and preservation of old antiques and vintage goods. In-house repair services are common, and many brands also sell second-hand versions of their own products. As in the construction field, there is an appreciation for the wear and tear of clothing, interior products, and other goods. Signs of repair or altering indicate a well-loved product, and one-off and time-worn pieces are highly regarded.


As climate zones shift, new exotic plant species migrate further north, and more southerly species can be cultivated in new areas. The emissions from imported food are reflected in prices and flavour, and local food is emphasised. Ecological farming methods are becoming more widespread, improving the security of supply and environmental friendliness. Agroecological symbiosis – for instance the collaborative and intertwined production of a farm and a biogas plant – increases resource efficiency and serves to conserve natural resources. Organic food and environmentally friendly food production has become more common with organic farming. Vegetarian food is gaining popularity, and new plant protein products are constantly being developed to offer alternatives to meat consumption. Laboratory protein production is evolving.

Local food production and vending has merged to form ‘experience food shops’. These are commercial buildings that utilise their roof space to grow vegetables and to produce energy. The grocery stores offer their customers the opportunity to select and pick their own fresh, in-season vegetables and fruit. In urban areas, such stores also offer the possibility of renting a plot of land for the spring and summer season. In addition to commercial buildings, the walls and roofs of parking spaces and power stations, for example, are used for growing crops. Vertical farming allows crops to be cultivated without natural light and the availability of food crops is not dependent on seasons – nor on importing. In farms, water and nutrients are kept in a closed loop and residual heat is recovered.

Food is sold extensively through home delivery services operated from the warehouses of grocery stores, with a focus on vegetarian and locally produced food. While unprocessed and organic food is a significant part of food production, plant protein innovations and lab-grown meat have replaced animal production for the most part, freeing up land from agriculture. Artificial meat is made to order in grocery store bioreactors, and consumers can make choices in terms of flavour and texture. The remaining animal farms rely on agroecological symbiosis: farm animals fertilise fields and produce biogas for an adjacent power plant, and carbon farming binds carbon dioxide into the soil.

In homes and restaurants, traditional energy-efficient preservation methods – such as fermentation and storing food in root cellars – are gaining popularity as seasonal farming and ecological lifestyles become more common. In urban centres, the need for food preservation has declined with home delivery, and collective gardens and greenhouses hosted in communal kitchens. As the climate is warming, many people enjoy growing herbs and vegetables on the façades of their homes, on balconies, or in communal gardens as a leisure activity or facilitated by smart home systems. Mushroom protein grows in boxes on kitchen counters, using organic waste as nutrition.

Community and work

In a world where a lot of time is spent virtually and most jobs are automated, community is more important than ever. Remote working is possible from anywhere, so a work community may be made up of people who only meet online. Even in their free time, people are routinely meeting virtually through the metaverse.

Information-intensive work continues to dominate, as manual work becomes more automated and less frequent. The pandemic of the 2020s freed up information workers to a more flexible work culture, where remote working and independently scheduled working hours became common practice. Virtual communication technologies are evolving. The overall amount of work done is decreasing and time is freed up. The meaningfulness of work is now a key consideration for many people. The workplace has become a virtual community rather than a physical location, and work is done from multiple and varied locations. Many of the hard physical tasks of the past have been automated, and people are responsible for regulating, monitoring, and controlling the process.

The world of work in 2100 is no longer location-bound and many people will have chosen their place of residence based on personal preferences or hobbies. Modern housing services make it easy to move around. A winter sports enthusiast may live seasonally in ski resorts, while a restaurant buff may change residence a few times a year in search of new experiences. As the diversity of family and housing units increases, the community may consist of like-minded people or friends who are comfortable living together. Many everyday household chores and goods are split between communities, for instance in the form of a shared vehicle or cooking. In more densely populated areas, the same services can be outsourced, and supplies and services can be delivered home via apps.

Workplaces have become virtual communities. Separate office buildings are a thing of the past. Public buildings and shops provide virtual hubs for local IT workers, students, or those seeking leisure activities. Many people work from home or from shared spaces in the housing block. Computing and remote working are distinct features of the new world of work, as are the variety and short duration of jobs. Instead of linear careers, many people work on a project-by-project basis. Flexible freelance work, having multiple jobs at the same time, lifelong learning, and constant skill development through different projects are merging work, passions, and hobbies.

Services, hobbies, and entertainment

A sustainable lifestyle directs consumer spending towards services rather than material goods. In particular, the wellness and experience industries are growing. Services are increasingly replacing physical consumer goods: for example, housing is offered as a flexible service in cities, with no need for your own furnishings. Clothes, hobby items, and art are available through lending services, and instead of driving a private car, you can use an app to grab a vehicle when needed. Repair services such as shoemakers and tailors are making a comeback as people attempt to extend the life of their products.

Increasingly, services are being delivered straight to the customer, as everything can be ordered via an app. Food items, ready meals, and other products from restaurants and grocery shops are delivered home or to a nearby pick-up point. Automated delivery methods such as drones and other robotic transporters are becoming more common.

Health services have also adapted to the increased differentiation of residential areas, and become more flexible. Vaccinations and other minor procedures are handled on house calls, and health checks are carried out remotely or through automated virtual check-ups. Wellbeing is promoted through preventive measures, with individually modified medicines flown in and delivered to the patient’s home.

As a natural extension of social media and remote working, virtual reality and the amount of time spent in virtual environments has increased. The metaverse combines virtual realities into a unified environment of gaming, spending time, and socialising. With the metaverse and changing consumer habits, shopping centres are gradually adapting to become service centres offering wellness- and experience-centred services, encounters, and recycled second-hand products.

An inclination towards mindfulness and spending time in nature are becoming more common in response to information work and time spent in virtual reality. Peace, quiet, and well-being are appreciated and environments shaped to promote these factors are especially desired. Unnecessary stimuli are being eliminated to balance everyday life.

Consumer goods are typically home-delivered, so shopping centres and high street stores have shifted into offering unique vintage and antique items. Stores are being replaced by gallery-style spaces where browsing a thoughtful selection is an aesthetic experience and a way for customers to spend time. Many shops in urban centres have evolved from being sales outlets to being places where products are showcased and tried. Through technological development, the clothing industry has shifted from borrowing and fitting to 3D-scanning and customised orders, in order to promote resource efficiency. Many stores create an atmosphere with attractive cafés, art exhibitions, concerts, or other sensory experiences. However, real coffee has been replaced by lab-grown coffee to save rainforests – as is the case with many other products that used to be based on import from faraway lands.

Drones and other robotic transporters fly autonomously on the streets among bicycles, pedestrians, and electric cars, and over rooftops. Food, goods, people, and even moving loads can automatically move around the city. The mobility needs of people for the sake of supplies or work is minimised, and people mainly move around the city for exercise, taking their pet for a walk, well-being, inspiration, social outings, and events.

People are continuing to spend their time in the virtual sphere, and social media, video games, and work-related technology are becoming an immersive experience. Smart devices that are discreetly attached to the human body – such as in the form of contact lenses and headphones – authenticate the virtual reality experience. Conversation, work, and gaming can easily take place from anywhere.

Homes are becoming less cluttered as virtual and augmented reality becomes more common. In particular, disposable products have been replaced by virtual ones. Birthday parties are celebrated together in the same room – but the decorations and party accessories are virtual ones.

The human pursuit of well-being is a driving factor in life, and this is something that has been taken into account in the design of the environments. Colours, plants, and their scents are matched with the characteristics of different areas, to refresh or soothe urban spaces. The real world – actual reality – serves to provide recreation, and social and environmental benefits. Exercise, pampering, nature, and multi-sensory experiences, such as those combining art, food, and music, are particularly popular focus points of consumption.


New modes of transport travel further with less. Small and light urban vehicles, air taxis, and short-haul aircrafts run on electricity, while heavier vehicles and long-haul flights run on hydrogen.

Cycling continues to grow in popularity and is accompanied by an increase in the use of electrically powered and assisted light vehicles. Light transport routes are becoming more prominent in urban areas. Electric cars have replaced fossil fuel cars. This change has led to quieter roads and less urban air pollution. For heavy transport and aviation, fossil-free fuels and hydrogen vehicles have been developed and long-distance transport continues to decline.

Light transport routes are becoming a visible part of the urban landscape, increasing the use of electric bicycles and scooters. The promotion of cleaner modes of transport has reduced noise pollution and emissions in cities. Through the energy transition, private cars became electrified before the 2100s. As public transport connections have improved, many people have switched to public transport or flexible shared electric vehicles. Heavy transport has decreased as resources have become more localised – but construction elements, for example, are being transported to construction sites by hydrogen trucks.

As technology has improved, road traffic has become more automated. Automation has reduced and eventually eliminated the need for drivers, with public transport and car sharing taking over from private cars. Public transport runs autonomously on its routes, while shared-use robotic cars arrive with the click of an app, and automatically take you to your destination. At the same time, accidents have significantly reduced.

Air transport has followed the trends of the circular economy and renewable energy. Fossil-free, waste-derived biofuels served to first reduce aircraft emissions. Now, small aircrafts are being converted into electric ones almost at the same rate as cars. Long-haul flights were a significant source of emissions, and the popularity of local and virtual travel increased at the same time that long-haul flights became more expensive. However, with the advent of hydrogen aircrafts, passengers can now fly with almost zero emissions – but many choose to travel virtually. With the transformation of work and leisure, air travel has become less common: there is little need for physical business travel due to virtuality, and with more leisure time, many are choosing to enjoy not only the destination but also the journey, whether that involves sailing, hiking, or travelling by rail.


Climate-Proof City – The Planner’s Workbook (Ilmastonkestävän kaupungin suunnitteluopas) Accessed on 28 March 2022

Leinonen (2022) “Sota on globalisaation päätepiste” – ketkä siitä hyötyvät?

[Article in Finnish on “war as the ending point of globalisation]

Leskinen (2020) Tieto&Trendit. Accessed 28 March 2022

[Finnish study on remote working]

Leskinen (2021) Tieto&Trendit. Accessed 28 March 2022

[Article in Finnish about remote working]

Nordlund (2022) Smart biomaterials of the future know how to break down in nature

Sitra (n.d.) Dictionary: The circular economy. Website. Accessed 28 March 2022

Sitra (2017) Infographic on the circular economy. Accessed 28 March 2022

Sitra (2022) Weak signals 2022 — Stories about futures

Sitra (2021) World Circular Economy Forum 2021 Summary report

Vartiainen (2020) Accessed 28 March 2022

Viero (2020) Master’s thesis, Implementing Biology into Construction Culture


Caracara Collective – products made of biowaste

Helsingin Sanomat — “The revolution of food”

Aalto University — energy-efficient wooden greenhouse for vertical farming


Avarrus Architects is a Helsinki-based architectural office of 16 employees founded in 2008. Our vision is to create sustainable architecture that brings insight and inspiration, practicality, and quality of living and housing. Our architectural work includes both renovation projects and new buildings, ranging from the city-level to individual houses and interior architecture. Our passion is to improve our living environment, one project at a time. We have been part of the Uusi kaupunki collective since 2016, and we are motivated by a desire to envision the cities of the future.


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